In chess, everything is connected.
Everything related to chess openings is a decisive step in the whole game. That’s why it’s very important to learn the very basics and start by getting to know chess.
After a while, most players understand that they are better at particular positions than others and that the amount of theory they can learn is limited. As a result, most players specialize in certain openings for which they have a good understanding of the theory and which lead to positions that they prefer. An opening repertoire is a collection of openings in which a player has specialized. The following are the most important aspects of a repertoire for a player to consider:
- Whether to start with 1.e4, 1.d4, 1.c4, or 1.Nf3 as White
- A defense against any of these entrances as Black
A limited repertoire allows for greater specialization, but it also limits a player’s ability to adapt to varied opponents. Opponents may also find it easier to prepare for a player with a limited repertoire.
The primary openings in a repertoire are usually sound, in the sense that they should lead to workable positions even against the best counterplay. Unsound gambits can be used as a surprise weapon, but they are unreliable for a consistent repertoire. Repertoires change as a player progresses, and if the beginning repertoire does not alter, a performer’s progression may be impeded. Some openings that work well against amateur players don’t work as well against masters. In the Benko Gambit, for example, Black receives aggressive play in exchange for a piece; beginner players may struggle to defend against Black’s activity, whilst masters are more adept at guarding and exploiting the extra pawn. Some of the openings used by grandmasters are so complicated and theoretical that ordinary players will struggle to understand them. The Sicilian Defense’s Perenyi Attack (see diagram) produces an enormously sophisticated and tactical position that even great players have difficulty understanding and that is beyond the comprehension of most novices.
Major chess rule modifications in the late fifteenth century enhanced the game’s tempo, stressing the significance of opening preparation. Early chess works, such as Luis Ramirez de Lucena’s text from 1497, as well as Pedro Damiano (1512) and Ruy López de Segura’s, give opening analysis (1561). Ruy Lopez’s debate with Damiano over the advantages of 2…Nc6 led to the Ruy Lopez or Spanish Opening being named after him (after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6). From the 1840s forward, opening theory was investigated more scientifically, and several opening variations were discovered and identified during this time. Opening nomenclature arose spontaneously, and the majority of names are historical occurrences rather than systematic concepts.
The oldest openings are usually named for geographical locations or personalities. Indian, English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Scotch, Russian, Italian, Scandinavian, and Sicilian are just a few of the nationalities whose openings are named after them. Cities such as Vienna, Berlin, and Wilkes-Barre are also used. The Catalan System takes its name from the Spanish area of Catalonia.
The most common source of opening names is chess players’ names. The name given to an opening isn’t always that of the first player to use it; it’s more common for an opening to be named after the player who popularized it or published the first analysis of it. The Ruy Lopez, Alekhine’s Defense, Morphy Defense, and Réti Opening are all eponymic openings. The Caro–Kann is an example of an opening name that honors two persons.
Few starting names, such as Giuoco Piano, are descriptive (Italian: quiet game). Two Knights and Four Knights are two more common descriptions. Openings with descriptive names are less prevalent than those named after places or persons.
Some of the entrances have been given imaginative names, frequently animal names. In the twentieth century, this approach grew more common. Most of the more common and traditional opening move sequences had already been called by that time, therefore these are more unique or newly formed openers like the Orangutan, Hippopotamus, Elephant, and Hedgehog.
The opening is also referred to by a variety of terms. Game, Defense, Gambit, and Variation are all frequent terms; System, Attack, Counterattack, Countergambit, Reversed, and Inverted are less common terms. To add to the confusion, these terms are employed in a variety of ways. Take a look at some of the nationality-specific openings: Scotch Game, English Opening, French Defensive, and Russian Game—both the Scotch Game and the English Opening are White openers (White chooses to play), and the French Defense, like the Russian Game, is a defense. Although there are no exact definitions for these terms, here are some general observations regarding how they are used.
Scotch Game, Vienna Game, and Four Knights Game are just a few of the oldest openings that use this game.
This is the most commonly used term, along with Variation.
Typically used to describe a line within a larger opening, such as the Queen’s Gambit Declined Exchange Variation.
Unless, of course, it has’reversed’ in front of it, making it a White opening, it always refers to an opening chosen by Black, such as Two Knights Defense or King’s Indian Defense. Many defenses are highly forceful, therefore the term “defense” does not indicate passivity (such as the Nimzo-Indian Defence).
An opening in which material is sacrificed, usually one or more pawns. White (e.g., the King’s Gambit) or Black (e.g., the Queen’s Gambit) can both play gambits (e.g., Latvian Gambit). As in the Queen’s Gambit Accepted and Queen’s Gambit Declined, the complete name typically includes Accepted or Declined depending on whether the opponent took the given material. In certain circumstances, material sacrifice is just temporary. Because there is no good option for Black to keep the pawn, the Queen’s Gambit is not a legitimate gambit.
A gambit played nearly always by Black in reaction to another gambit. The Albin Countergambit to the Queen’s Gambit, the Falkbeer Countergambit to the King’s Gambit, and the Greco Countergambit are all examples of this (the former name of the Latvian Gambit).
A strategy of development that can be applied against a variety of opponent sets. London System, Colle System, Stonewall Attack, Réti System, Barcza System, and Hedgehog System are some examples.
The Albin–Chatard Attack (or Chatard–Alekhine Attack), the Fried Liver Attack in the Two Knights Defense, and the Grob Attack are all examples of aggressive or provocative variations. In other contexts, such in King’s Indian Attack, it refers to a Black defensive system that is adopted by White. In other circumstances, such as with the very harmless Durkin’s Attack, the name appears to be employed jokingly (also called the Durkin Opening).
A Black opening played by White, or a White opening played by Black, is a rare occurrence. Sicilian Reversed (from the English Opening) and the Inverted Hungarian are two examples. 1.Nf3 or 1.c4 are frequently used in the Reti, King’s Indian Attack, and Reversed Sicilian (from the English), as well as other “Black played by White with an extra tempo” variations.
Only a small percentage of vacancies begin with “Anti-.” These are openings designed to prevent an opponent from using a line that would otherwise be available to them, such as the Anti-Marshall (against the Marshall (Counter) Attack in the Ruy Lopez) and the Anti-Meran Gambit (against the Meran Variation of the Semi-Slav Defense).